We’d like to coin a new term “Squalid Art” (n), meaning the art created when external artists are invited into a poor housing area to establish a tourist attraction.
Based on our day trip to Valparaiso in Chile ( you can read the post here) and now in Busan’s Gamcheon area, we are great fans of it. However, you do wonder if it’s sometimes imposed on the locals.
Established in the 1950s, as a refugee camp for Koreans fleeing the civil war, Gamcheon’s twisty lanes and steep terraces used to be one of the city’s poorest shanty towns. That was until 2009 when government money started financing the murals and art installations.
Now thousands of tourists get the number 1.1 bus up the very steep hill, buy their trail map and collect ink stamps and postcards at fun, attractive locations. However, when we wandered off the trail, the poverty that still exists behind the squalid art facade was all too obvious.
Forget the reserve of Japan, it’s a different world in Korea, with chaos and emotion raw and infecting. Middle aged travellers may prefer Japan, but the young will love the energy here.
Moments we didn’t see in Japan……. On the tube, a harassed mother shouting to her boy. Sitting on a bus, the driver remonstrating with a car blocking a narrow road. In the street, teenage girls in the tiniest shorts adjusting their hair. In a taxi, the attitude that makes you demand to be let out.
As well as the people, Korea’s second city is a simmering kaleidoscope of buildings; new and old, battered and glistening. The concrete and neon feels alive, on the go and changing in front of your eyes. Getting higher, getting wealthier, getting more global.
And we’ve noticed a big generational difference here. Many older people are missing out on the progress, sitting on the pavement selling their fruit, whilst the younger people are amongst the best educated in the world, totally online with a global perspective. The mums look bemused and weary, whilst their kids scan smartphones for the latest music, trend or happening.
We used the excellent bus and metro system to get around, and enjoyed particularly walking along Gwangalli Beach at dusk past the karaoke performers, with the millions of LEDs on Gwangan Bridge flashing away, the view of the city from the rugged coastline at Igidae, and a visit to Gamcheon Culture Village.
Planning the gap year, the idea of taking a ferry from Japan to South Korea always appealed. But come the day, we discovered hydrofoils were our only option. So what was planned as our “slow boat to Korea” across the Sea of Japan, sitting on deck, basking in the sun, morphed into a comfy chair in a sealed craft.
The crossing from Fukuoka, on the southern island of Kyushu in Japan, to Busan in South Korea took exactly three hours. There were only a few other boats, but we went close to the Japanese island of Tsushima.
The first things we saw on approaching our gap year’s 16th country were massive residential flats. Unlike Japan, with its declining population, South Korea’s has nearly doubled in the past 50 years. Welcome to the new world.
We are sad to be leaving Japan; 15 days here was simply not long enough.
It’s a first world country that’s so different to ours. So an easy place to be a traveller, but also authentic, quirky and compelling. Here are some observations we are taking away….
Past and future
Japan was our gateway to the futuristic world (Korea and China are to come), but it’s also a country that cherishes a past of civility and manners.
It’s this perfect combination that makes the place so lovely to be in. When we were young, we read and saw films about a 21st century where technology and machines, coupled with a new human kindness, created an enviable lifestyle for all. Is Japan the closest we have come to it?
We queried why so many French visitors come to Japan, with a French language exchange student; “It’s because of animation” she told us. We queried further, so she explained that the French and Japanese share a love of animation and from an early age French school children see anime/manga, a massive cultural export, and become intrigued by Japan and its way of life.
A significant number of Japanese wear face masks. We were unsure if this was to protect the individual from inhaling smog or catching a disease, say at exam time, or possibly to protect others from any cold/flu that the wearer had. However, our helpful Hong Kong student (the one who told us about Japanese toilets) said that teenagers also wear these masks to cover up acne and other issues with their faces.
2020 is coming
Everywhere, buildings and temples, such as the Kiyomizu-dera in Kyoto which was covered in scaffolding, are being buffed up for the 2020 Olympics that Japan will host, and there’s a real push to get the country tourist-friendly. No doubt, the country will put on a great show, and all the hard work will be worth it. But, because of the heat, we don’t envy the marathon runners.
Old houses not valued
We were surprised to learn there is no market for old houses; purchasers inevitably knock down the existing house and build afresh. Also, Homebase and B&Q wouldn’t do well here, as there is little appetite for home improvements that will never pay back. Back in 2008, this meant there were no toxic loans or housing bubble to burst.
Regretfully, this thinking has also applied historically to public buildings, most of Japan’s famous castles were demolished in the 1880s, leaving just a handful for the millions of tourists.
Avoiding the hills
As we travelled the length of Honshu by train, we noticed that the housing is squashed into the valleys, whilst huge areas of forested hills, that in other countries would be prime real estate, have no buildings.
Our Japanese expert Sophie tells us it’s because of two things: the threat of earth tremors which happen on an almost daily basis and the fact that the Shinto religion, adhered to by 80% of Japanese, believes that hills are sacred places.
Travel by public transport and you constantly hear little jingles reminiscent of happy, childish ditties. Used ahead of public announcements, each route or company seems to have their own version, a kind of audio branding.
Whilst places in the UK and elsewhere take pride in being “announcement free”, Japan simply loves all forms of public address, either pre-recorded multi-lingual on the bullet trains or personalised by the conductor on the buses.
Keeping Japan tidy
Japan is spotless. You could sit down and eat your lunch off the streets, anywhere. (Which we sometimes did). In local parks there is no litter, tramps, dogs or general squalor. There must be thousands of people involved in keeping Japan so clean, but we saw few of them, and ironically finding a rubbish bin is near impossible. Perhaps it’s simply because the Japanese don’t create the mess in the first place.
When asking some women how old they are, we’ve been stunned by the answers. Women with no wrinkles, who look to be mid twenties, are actually in their forties or fifties. And girls that appear to be 13 year olds are often much older. What creams do they use?
By contrast, Japanese men seem to age before their time. Roger spent an hour talking with a Japanese father who looked about 65, and was surprised to discover he was only 52. Maybe, in this gender-unequal society, there is far too much pressure on the men to be the sole breadwinner.
For our last full day in Japan, we went to see the Itsukushima Shrine on the island of Miyajima. From Hiroshima, it’s a streetcar and short ferry trip, so an easy day-trip.
Oh dear. Around midday, when we arrived, the weekend crowds were intense, the souvenir shops intrusive and the famous O-Torii Gate we had come to photograph was stranded at low tide in thick mud.
But six hours later, after a stroll around the island, welcome reading time and a delicious authentic meal, all had changed. Now, this felt like a World Heritage Site, and the keen photographers, the ones with their tripods, were clicking away.
First built in 593 and remodelled in 1168, the Itsukushima Shrine sits on boardwalks above the rising tide. Approaching by boat, through the 16.6 m high, camphor and cedar wood O-Torii Gate, must have been an incredible, visual experience. As the sun broke through the low clouds, we obtained a dramatic shot that could only be Japan.
Ifyouplanto do this It’s all about being there at high tide, and hopefully it will tie-in with the sunset. So plan your day around the tidal charts.
As we’ve staggered around dehydrated in hot temperatures, we’ve often been very grateful to see a vending machine.
Vending machines are ubiquitous here, on streets, in stations, by crossroads in the country, even at the top of Mount Fuji. In fact, Japan has the highest usage per person of vending machine anywhere in the world. This is most likely due to the law abiding nature of its citizens resulting in a total lack of vandalism, and the Japanese’s love of automation, they always work and even give change!
In addition to chilled drinks, they dispense a wide variety of snacks, fresh sandwiches and sweets.
Vending machines are such a part of the Japanese psyche that one marketing director used them as a spoof for selling a new line of made-to-measure bras. They weren’t really supplied by vending machines, but it got everyone talking about the bra’s brand on social media.
We have mixed views about the two atomic bomb attacks on Japan. Both our Fathers were caught-up in the Pacific War and arguably would not have survived during a prolonged invasion of Japan.
And in defence of the decision to use the bombs, it needs to be remembered that 1945 was already a time of mass slaughter. In March, 100,000 died in a single Tokyo bombing raid. And the Battle of Okinama was ritualised killing with some 240,000 soldiers and civilians slain.
But going round the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, reading the text, the inference was clearly made that America, having developed the bomb at great expense (the Manhattan Project), and fearing the Soviet Union’s global expansion, wanted to detonate it for a bit of “shock and awe” and so delayed offering Japan acceptable surrender terms until after August 6th and August 9th.
Surely, it’s more than ironic that a weapon today justified by its deterrent factor, was launched into the world with no warning and no ultimatum. 140,000 people in Hiroshima died horrendously within four months, whilst armchair generals wrote congratulatory memos.
The vision of the museum is to call for a worldwide ban on nuclear weapons, as proposed by the July 7th United Nations motion signed by 122 countries, but not the existing nuclear powers, including of course North Korea.
Travelling on these sleek bullet trains has been a real highlight of our time in Japan. Comfortable, smooth and relaxing, they are time machines, shrinking the country. We’ll go home thinking Japan is a lot smaller than it really is.
Here, there’s a pride in the railways, probably like nowhere else on earth. The timetable is guaranteed, people still queue on the platform, it’s plain-sailing to reserve seats, the conductors bow when they enter a carriage, everyone is quiet and respectful, and litter is taken home not dumped on the seats. Also, getting around is easy; all announcements and signage are in Japanese and English.
First introduced in 1964, and travelling along dedicated lines, the service has been regularly updated and the latest trains (N700 series) travel up to 320kph (200mph). There are five types of service, two of them excluded from our rail pass. Although from Tokyo to Kyoto we got onto a banned super-fast Nozomi service by mistake, and the conductor very politely asked us to leave the train at the next station, Nogoya. Not to worry, another Skinkansen, one we could travel on, came along five minutes later.
And being in Japan we can appreciate the difference these high-speed trains make to an urban population essentially living in a linear line from Fukuoka to Tokyo.
The train from Okayama pulled into Hiroshima at 9.56am, 160 km later.
A 20 minute ferry crossing took us to Naoshima, a small island that’s been transformed, in the past 25 years, from depopulated backwater to serious art colony, full of restaurants and guest houses.
We hired bikes for a ridiculously cheap sum, (£3 each, no deposit needed), bought some takeaway food from the ever present 7-11, and planned a circle of the island to visit both Honmura and the southern area. It felt good cycling along small lanes, through rural settlements, past lovely secluded lakes, and we would later say this was the highlight of the day.
However, we had some contemporary art to see.
In Honmura’s Art House Project, five previously empty houses and an old Shinto shrine, have been turned into art installations by six artists. Two stood out for us, Tatsuo Miyajima’s Kadoya house, and James Turrell (remember him from our Canberra blog) for his breathtaking Minamidera lightwork.
Later we queued to get into the Chichu Art Museum. Designed by Tadao Ando, this is largely underground, yet most rooms are lit by natural light. Here was art curation at its most extreme. The entire museum featured five late-period Claude Monets, an installation by Walter de Maria, and three lightworks by that man again, James Turrell. Hilary thought the place was disappointing, whilst Roger loved it.
At the stunning new Aeon shopping mall in central Okayama, the sixth and seventh floors are a delight for foodies. Creating their own separate world, isolated from the hubbub around them, concept restaurants offer every variety of Asian food.
But it’s the way their food is merchandised that grabbed our eyes. Outside every restaurant, the menu is presented on plates, its texture reminding us of Lenin lying in his subterranean Red Square tomb, and for a few moments we did wonder if this was actually real food embalmed. But no. Somewhere in Japan there must be a factory where chefs can send their dishes to be converted into plastic fake food.
We went online for more facts and discovered that fake food called sampuru, which originated in 1926, is a multi-million Yen business; restaurants pay a lot to have their dishes faithfully reproduced. First, silicon is poured over the food to create a mould, this is then filled with plastic and the whole thing cooked in an oven, followed by intricate detailing and painting, and a few secret techniques.
It’s interesting that whilst this food promotion is standard in Japan, where people want to taste with their eyes, we haven’t seen it (yet) in any other country. A quirky example of how modern Japanese culture delightfully surprises and may always remain an enigma. To our British eyes, fake food seems just too shiny and plasticky to be appealing.